BoroChrom - Concentrated Boron Supplement
- Provides boron, a component of alkalinity that is also associated with improving colour
the intensity of coral tissue through incorporation into red phytopigments.
- Encourages biogenous aragonite formation (increased growth rates of coralline algae,
as well as skeletal growth in corals and other reef-building invertebrates).
- Considerably stronger than competing boron supplements. Utilizes ACS-Reagent grade
Read instructions completely before use. Shake container before each application. The natural seawater concentration of boron is ~4.54 ppm; maintaining the boron concentration in reef aquaria within a range of 4 - 6 ppm is recommended. Enhanced red coloration in coral tissue may be observed when maintaining an elevated boron concentration, however, attention should be paid to alkalinity and pH when using BoroChrōm for this purpose. Gradually increasing the boron concentration (by no more than ~1 ppm each day) will yield the greatest stability of water chemistry and is strongly recommended. A maximum sustained boron concentration of 8 ppm is recommended. Changes in coloration may take 1 - 4 weeks to appear, and each colony will respond differently (some may not change colour noticeably, depending upon base coloration, duration of dosing, and sustained boron concentration in the system); results will vary.
Determine the boron concentration in the aquarium system using an accurate test kit before supplementing. Each ml (~20 drops) of BoroChrōm will increase the concentration of boron ("[B]") in 1 US-gallon (3.785 L) of water by approximately 1.5 ppm (~0.075 ppm per drop). If the initial [B] in the aquarium is below 1.5 ppm, add this product at the maximum rate of 1 ml per 100 US-gallons daily until the boron concentration measures between 4 - 7 ppm, then dose daily or weekly as needed (see below). Always try to maintain the [B] within a range of +/-2 ppm. To determine the dosing rate of this product once the desired [B] has been acquired, measure the daily rate of boron uptake (i.e. the decrease in boron) in your aquarium by measuring the [B] at the same time each day over one- to two-week period. To determine the daily dosing rate (preferable to weekly dosing) for boron maintenance: estimate the volume of water in the entire aquarium system; divide the daily decrease in [B] by 1.5; multiply this number by the volume of water in the system to get the daily dosage required (ml) to maintain a stable [B]. Daily dosing maintains a more stable [B] (and more natural environment) than dosing weekly, in which the [B] spikes just after dosing and then gradually decreases throughout the course of the week.
In natural seawater, boron is a non-conservative major element with a concentration of ~4.54 ppm. Boron plays an active role in regulating the pH in marine systems, and maintaining the boron concentration within a narrow range of the [B]NSW, relative to systems with depressed [B], typically results in faster growth of coralline algae and formation of aragonite in reef-building invertebrates in most systems, when all other physical and chemical requirements are met. Recent experimentation with maintaining slightly elevated [B] in reef aquaria indicates that enhanced production of red phytopigments results, improving colour intensity of zooxanthellate corals with a yellow, orange, or red base coloration.
The importance of boron to reef-building organisms is most apparent when beginning to dose it in aquaria with depleted boron concentrations, and/or in which the sea salt mixture employed is boron-deficient; in such cases, changes in the rate of coralline algae growth, as well as in the appearance of many corals, may be observed within the first weeks of daily dosing. Maintaining boron within a range of 4 - 6 ppm is sufficient for long-term health, growth, and coloration of corals when all other physical and chemical requirements are met. The rate at which boron is extracted from the water is determined by the stocking density of boron-depleting livestock, rate of production of weak acids that may impact alkalinity and pH, the composition of buffer(s) employed in the system, characteristics of lighting and method(s) of filtration employed, and other biological, physical, and chemical conditions; therefore, each aquarium will have different requirements for the rate of boron supplementation. Once the rate of boron uptake in the aquarium has been determined (see opposite), the proper dosing rate of this supplement can be easily calculated. It is recommended that a quality salt mix with the proper (not augmented) alkalinity and concentrations of major, minor, and trace elements be used to establish natural seawater parameters in marine aquaria, providing a stable ionic foundation on which to build.